Glossary

A

Accessibility Features
The settings and tools available within the Student Testing Site that provide support for students with disabilities, such as features that allow students to change the color contrast or font size of an online test.
Accommodations (Non-standard)
Any modifications provided for a student's testing experience that affect the construct of the test, which is the general skill that the test is intended to assess.
Accommodations (Standard)
Test modifications that are in use in most online assessment programs and that do not change the construct of the test, which is the general skill that the test is intended to assess. For example, the zoom tools available in the Student Testing Site do not change the construct of a test intended to assess writing skills, so they are considered a standard accommodation.
Adaptation
A change made in the presentation, setting, response, timing, or scheduling of a test that may or may not change the construct of the test, which is the general skill that the test is intended to assess.
Aggregation
The compilation of test result data in a report that provides average scores for a group of students, such as the students in a roster or school.
Alignment
The association between an item on a test and a content standard that identifies which skill or knowledge area that item is intended to measure.
Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC)
A term used to describe the different methods or devices that can be used to help students with disabilities communicate with others. These methods can be used as either an alternative or a supplement to speech, and can include the use of signs and gestures, standardized signing, symbol systems, and complex electronic devices.
Alternative Computer Input Technology (ACI)
Assistive tools that allow students with various impairments (such as physical and visual impairments) to interact with a computer without using a traditional mouse and keyboard setup.
Annual Assessment Window
A designated time period each school year during which schools administer tests to students.
Appeal
A request to reset or reopen a test, which may interrupt the normal workflow of a test opportunity. An appeal to invalidate a test may also be submitted if testing incident occurs. Appeals are created and processed in TIDE.
Assessment
An online or paper test consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as a test.
Assessment Reports
Reports available in the Reporting system that provide detailed student performance data for an individual test taken by an individual student or group of students.
Assessment Viewing Application (AVA)
A Cambium (CAI) application within the Test Delivery System (TDS) that allows educators to view the content of interim assessments as the content will appear to students.
Assistive Keyboard and Mouse Input Technology
Assistive tools that provide additional support to students with physical impairments who need to use a keyboard and mouse in order to respond to test items.
Assistive Technology
Any hardware or software that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability.
Autonomous Single App Mode (ASAM)
A special feature available in some testing devices that allows that device to lock its focus onto a single application.

B

BRF File (BRF)
A Braille file type used to emboss test items containing only text or formatted tables.

C

Cambium Assessment, Inc. (CAI)
An education company owned by Cambium Learning Group that develops innovative online assessments and assessment applications, such as the Test Delivery System (TDS) and Test Information Distribution Engine (TIDE). Not sure if we should abbreviate TDS and TIDE.
Centralized Reporting System (CRS)
A CAI system that provides comprehensive student performance reports on assessments and allows educators to hand-score some test items..
Chrome OS
An operating system developed and distributed by Google, which is supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Chromebook
A laptop that runs Chrome OS.
Circle Match
An item type that requires students to respond by matching together answer options that appear in a circle layout.
Cloze (CZ)
An item type that requires students to respond by filling in a blank that appears in a sentence.
Cluster
May refer to either of two things:
-A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
-A set of items or interactions within a single item that engages students in activity aligned to a specific standard.
Cohort
A group of students who have something in common, such as their class membership. In test reports, cohorts are commonly used to aggregate data for a group of students and measure their performance in an individual test or over time.
Column Match
An item type that requires students to respond by matching together answer options that are listed in a set of columns.
Comma-Separated Values (CSV)
A type of file in which data are separated by commas. Some CAI systems allow users to create or modify data in bulk by uploading a CSV file.
Common Core State Standards (CCSS)
High quality standards developed by a consortium of states and experts in the field of education from which state summative assessments measuring student growth are developed and aligned.
Complexity
The level of cognitive demand expected for a student to correctly answer a test item.
Condition Code
A code applied in place of a score on an assessment report when a student's response to a test item cannot be scored.
Construct
The set of concepts or skills that a test is intended to measure, such as reading ability or writing ability.
Constructed Response (CR)
An item type that requires student to respond with a written, pictorial, or graphic answer.
Content Standard
The skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Context Menu Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear inside a menu and are available for individual items and stimuli.
Cover Page (CP)
The first page that appears on some test pamphlets or online assessments, which may include identifying information, such as the test name or student name.
Cut Score
A specific point on a test's score scale that distinguishes between two performance levels. Scores at or above that point are interpreted to mean something different from scores below that point. Cut scores can determine if a student's test score is sufficient, insufficient, almost sufficient, etc.

D

Data Entry Interface (DEI)
A CAI system that allows educators to enter student responses from a paper test booklet following a paper-based test administration for the VT Smarter Balanced or VT Science assessments. It is also used by teachers administering the VT Alternate Assessment to complete the Learner Characteristic Inventory (LCI).
Device
Hardware that students may use in daily classroom instruction and to take tests, including, but not limited to, desktop computers, laptops, netbooks, tablets and assistive technologies for students requiring accommodations.
Dimension
A type of scoring criterion in an item's rubric.
Disaggregation
The process by which performance data for a group of students, such as a roster or school, is broken down into data for the various sub-groups or demographic groups within that larger student group.
District Administrator (DA)
A CAI system user role representing an administrator for an entire district.
District Coordinator (DC)
A CAI system user role representing a coordinator for an entire district.
Domain
A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
Drag-and-Drop Grid Item
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging a text or image object onto specified locations in a grid or image.
Duxbury Braille Translator
Accessibility software used to emboss BRF test items in a Braille test.

E

Edit Task (ET)
An item type that requires students to respond by editing words or phrases in a sentence.
Edit Task Inline Choice (ETIC)
An item type that requires students to respond by filling in the blank in a sentence by selecting options from an inline drop-down list.
Edit Task with Choice (ETC)
An item type that requires students to respond by selecting replacement text for a word or phrase from a drop-down list.
Eligibility Rules
Student attributes set up in TIDE that determine which tests a student will be able to take in TDS.
Embedded Support
Built-in tools and settings in the Student Testing Site that provide assistance in using the application to students testing with the appropriate accommodations.
Embedded Text Entry (ETE)
An item type that requires students respond by typing an answer in one or more blank text boxes that appear in a sentence.
End of Life (EOL)
The projected date on which CAI plans to end the Test Delivery System's support for a specific version of an operating system.
English as a Second Language (ESL)
An educational program used to teach reading, writing, speaking and listening to students whose first "native" language is not English.
English Language Learner (EL)
A student who is learning the English Language.
Equation Response
An item type that allows students to respond by clicking mathematical characters that appear in an on-screen keypad.
Error of Measurement
Typically referred to as standard error of measurement. The amount or difference between a student’s actual score and the theoretical true score. The degree of inherent imprecision in student performance reports based on test content, administration, scoring, or examinee conditions.
Evidence-Based Selected Response (EBSR)
An item type that requires students to answer a multi-part question related to an accompanying passage or information presented in the stem.
Exemplar
An element included in an item's scoring rubric that provides an example of a student response that would earn a certain number of points.
Exemption from Testing
The exemption of a student from a testing requirement.
Expiration Rules
The rules that determine how long it takes a test opportunity to expire when a student starts it without completing it. Students cannot make any additional changes to a test opportunity once it expires without an appeal being submitted.
Extended Answer (EA)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a longer text response, such as an essay.
Extended Constructed Response (ECR)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a longer text response, such as an essay.

F

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
A federal law that protects students' privacy regarding education records and also provides parents with rights regarding their children's education records.
Fedora
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Firewall (FW)
A network security system that monitors traffic and prevents unauthorized access to the network.
Force Quit
An action that test administrators may need to take to close the Secure Browser in the event that it becomes unresponsive.
Form
A compilation of test items and/or stimuli that make up the segments of an assessment. Also known as a test form.
Frequency-Distribution Report (FDR)
A report that shows the frequency or count of a particular score or outcome by student group or demographic.

G

Global Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear at the top of the screen and are available for an entire test segment.
Grace Period Extension (GPE)
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to review previously answered questions upon resuming a test after expiration of the pause timer.
Grade Level
The grade in which a student is enrolled or the academic grade of same-age peers who are in a general education classroom.
Grade range
Two or more consecutive grade levels (for example, grades 3 through 6).
Graph Item
An item type that requires students to respond by adjusting the heights or lengths of bars in a graph.
Grid Item
A type of item interaction that can offer several different ways for the student to interact with a grid area, such as dragging an object onto the grid canvas or plotting points on a graph.

H

Hand Scoring
The process of manually scoring test items, which may be performed by educators for the interim assessments in the Reporting system.
Hot Spot
An item type that requires students to respond by clicking regions on an image, such as countries on a map.
Hot Text (HT)
An item type that requires students to click words or phrases in a section of text.
Hotline
A CAI system that identifies and alerts administrators about any student responses that may indicate troubled students.

I

Image Drag and Drop
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging text or image elements onto a background image.
Individual Student Report (ISR)
A report that provides detailed information about an individual student's performance on an individual test.
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
A legal document for students with disabilities that affect learning, which is reviewed and revised to reflect the decisions made by an interdisciplinary team, including the parent and student when appropriate. Guides team decisions on a student's educational program.
Interaction
A component of a test item that students can interact with, such as a list of options they can select from or a text box in which they type a response. A test item may include one or more individual interactions.
Invalidate a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that eliminates the test opportunity, which results in the student having no further opportunities for the test.
iOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
iPadOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
Item
A scored question, exercise, or task on a test that students interact with to enter a response.

J

Job Access with Speech (JAWS)
Screen reader software designed to help blind/visually-impaired people use computer applications.

K

Keyboard Command
A key or combination of keys students can press in order to perform an action in the Student Testing Site.
Kiosk Mode
A feature available in certain operating systems in which a device allows access only to a specific application, such as CAI's Secure Browser.

L

Limited English Proficiency (LEP)
A student whose primary language is not English and is receiving English Language services.
Linux
A family of free and open source operating systems, some of which are supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A network that connects a group of computers that are in the same location.
Long Answer (LA)
An item type that requires students to type a long response in a text box, such as an essay question.
Longitudinal Report
A type of report available in the Reporting system that shows a comparison of assessment results for a particular student or group of students at two or more points in time.

M

Machine Scoring
Item scoring performed automatically by a computer.
Machine-Scored Constructed Response (MSCR)
A type of written response item that requires scoring logic or a machine rubric to score.
Match Item (MI)
An item type that requires students to respond by matching answer options together.
Mobile Secure Browser (MSB)
The mobile version of CAI's Secure Browser. It is used on iPads (iPadOS and iOS) and Chromebooks.
Multiple Choice (MC)
An item type that requires students to select a single answer from a list of options.
Multiple Select (MS)
An item type that requires students to select one or more answer options from a list of options.

N

Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics (Nemeth Code)
A Braille code for encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly.
Non-Eligible Test Discrepancy
A discrepancy occurring when a student submits a test for which they are not eligible. These discrepancies are resolved in TIDE.
Non-Matching School Discrepancy
A discrepancy occurring when a student submits a test while enrolled in one school but TIDE’s records indicate that the student was enrolled in another school at the time of the test. These discrepancies are resolved in TIDE.

O

Open Ended (OE)
An item type that requires students to type a response in a text box.
Operational
In student testing, this term refers to live testing, as distinct from practice testing. An operational assessment is one that is developed and administered at a specified time and whose scoring results are used for the purpose of meeting local, state, and/or federal requirements.
Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Options
The response choices to an item's stem from which students select an answer.

P

Paper Order
Also known as a materials order. An order for paper-and-pencil test materials, such as paper test booklets. Paper orders can be managed in TIDE.
Participation Rate
In student testing, the percentage of students within a particular group who took a test as compared to the total number of students in the group who could have taken the test.
Participation Report by SSID
A report available in TIDE that details the status for each test opportunity started by a particular student as indicated by the state student identification number.
Pause Rule
A rule in the Student Testing Site that restricts students from modifying their responses to previous items if they pause their test and return to it after exceeding a certain time limit.
Performance on Tests Report
A report available in the Reporting system that lists all the assessments completed by a user's associated students.
Permissive Mode
A Secure Browser setting that allows a student to use pre-approved hardware or software that would otherwise be blocked by the Secure Browser.
Personally Identifying Information (PII)
Information that could identify an individual person, such as a student's name and date of birth.
Plan and Manage Testing Report
A report available in TIDE that details all of a student’s test opportunities and the status of those test opportunities.
Portal
A website that serves as a one-stop shop for educators involved in the online assessment process, providing access to CAI systems, State Assessments, training sites, tutorials, and other resources.
Predictive Text Technology
A type of assistive technology that suggests words to students as they type responses to test items.
Prefetch Item Rule
A setting in TDS that queues up a certain number of test items as students progress through the test to ensure there are no delays in testing.
PreID Label
A label affixed to a student’s physical testing materials, such as a paper answer booklet.
Print Request
A TA Site feature in which students with the appropriate test settings may request printouts of test content, which the test administrator may approve.
PRN File (PRN)
A Braille file type used to emboss test items containing Nemeth code or tactile graphics.
Proctor Relationship
In the Reporting System, the relationship between a teacher that administers the test and all his or her proctored students. It allows the teacher to view test results for any tests students completed in their test sessions, regardless of whether those students belong to the teacher's rosters.
Prompt (P)
The component of an item that provides students with the instructions or question they must respond to.
Prose Constructed Response (PCR)
An item type that requires students to respond to a prompt by writing an answer in a text box.

R

Refreshable Braille Display (RBD)
An assistive technology device for visually-impaired students that translates text to a readable braille format.
Remote Administration (Remote Admin)
A Test Delivery System (TDS) feature that allows test administrators to administer interim tests remotely when students are unable to take a test in the same physical location as the administrator.
Re-open a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a test opportunity that was completed, invalidated, or expired.
Re-open Test Segment Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a test segment that a student already submitted. This is available only if the student has not yet started a new test segment.
Reporting Category
A topic or skill area within a test. In the Reporting system, some reports may allow users to view performance data by reporting category.
Reset a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to restart a test opportunity (removing all responses on the test), or allows the data entry operator to restart the data entry process.
Roster
A group of students associated with an educator. Rosters typically represent classes, but may also represent other groups, such as students who have taken honors courses.
Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.

S

Scaffolding Item
An item type typically used in alternate assessments that requires students to respond by selecting an answer card from a list of options.
School Coordinator (SC)
A CAI system user role representing a test coordinator for an individual school.
School Year (SY)
The academic year, given as a range (for example, 2020 to 2021).
Scoring Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.
Scratchpad (SP)
An item type that requires students to respond by using drawing tools in a canvas area.
Screen Magnifier Technology
A type of assistive technology that enlarges the content displayed on the computer screen in order to assist students with visual impairments.
Screen Reader
An application that transforms the text displayed on a computer screen into synthesized speech for vision-impaired users.
Screensaver Mode
A feature in the TA Site that allows test administrators to temporarily hide any sensitive student data that appears on screen.
Secure Browser (SB)
The CAI browser through which all operational tests are administered. The Secure Browser provides a secure and user-friendly environment for students to complete tests while preventing access to any prohibited tools or applications.
Secure Inbox (Inbox)
The secure inbox shared across multiple CAI systems. It stores files that were exported from those systems.
Short Answer
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a short response in a text box.
Short Response (SR)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a short response in a text box.
Simulation (SIM)
An item type that requires students to set the parameters of an interactive animation and extrapolate data in a table.
Single Sign-On (SSO)
A shared component in CAI systems that allows users to use a single set of login credentials to access every CAI system.
Skill Area
A reporting category or topic by which items are organized in a test based on related standards measured.
Speech-to-Text (STT)
A non-embedded support that uses an assistive technology device to transcribes a student's speech and enter it into a text box.
Standard
The specific skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
State Administrator (SA)
A CAI system user role that may have access to any special administrative features available in a system.
State Student ID (SSID)
A student's statewide identification number.
State Student Identifier (SSID)
A unique number or alphanumeric code assigned to a student for identification purposes.
Stem
The question or prompt in a test item to which the students must respond.
Stimulus
A reading passage or multimedia resource in a test that students must review in order to respond to a set of associated items.
Student Data File
A spreadsheet file that lists comprehensive test result data for a custom combination of tests and students, which users can generate and export in the Reporting system.
Student Portfolio Report
A report available in the Reporting system that lists all the assessments completed by a particular student.
Student Testing Site
The component of the Test Delivery System (TDS) where students can take tests. Both practice and operational Student Testing Sites are available. The operational site is also known as the Secure Browser.

T

Table Input (TI)
An item type that requires students to respond by entering information in a table.
Table Match
An item type that requires students to respond by clicking checkboxes in the cells of a table to match together terms that appear in the column and row headers.
Take a Test (TAT)
A Microsoft application that allows students to take a test securely in Windows. The Take a Test app may be used as an alternative to the CAI Secure Browser.
Teacher
A CAI system user role, typically one that is associated with one or more rosters.
Technology-Enhanced Items (TEIs)
Test items that take advantage of the computer-based environment to present interactions and elicit responses in ways that may not be possible on a paper-based test.
Test
An online or paper form consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as an assessment.
Test Administration Certification Course (TA Certification Course)
A certification course offered to potential test administrators in order to prepare them for use of CAI's Test Delivery System.
Test Administration Site (TA Site)
A component of CAI's Test Delivery System used by test administrators to proctor online test sessions. Both practice and operational TA Sites exist. Also known as the TA Interface.
Test Administrator (TA)
A CAI system user role for an educator who may administer test sessions in TDS.
Test Completion Rate Report
A report available in TIDE that summarizes the number and percentage of students who have started or completed a test.
Test Content
Used to refer to the the items and stimuli within a test, the reading passage or other media type within a stimulus, and the prompt and response area within an item.
Test Delivery System (TDS)
A set of CAI systems used by educators to proctor online test sessions and by students to complete online assessments. TDS includes the TA Site, the Student Testing Site, the Assessment Viewing Application, and the Data Entry Interface.
Test Form
A compilation of one or more test items and/or tasks that comprise the full test.
Test Impropriety
Any action or violation, whether deliberate or accidental, that would invalidate a test. Also known as a testing incident.
Test Information and Distribution Engine (TIDE)
A CAI system that allows educators to manage user and student information. It is responsible for student registration, gathering of demographic data, and materials ordering.
Test Label
The name of an assessment as displayed in CAI systems.
Test Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Test Presentation
The language or way in which a test is displayed to the student.
Test Reason
A category assigned to a test opportunity, which is used to categorize the test for reporting purposes. Test reasons can be assigned to test opportunities in TDS or the Reporting system.
Test Reason Manager
A feature in the Reporting system that allows users to set and modify the test reasons assigned to test opportunities.
Test Segment
A section of a test. Tests may be divided into multiple segments based on the skills measured, types of tasks, and/or tools available in that section.
Test Session
An event created by test administrators in the TA Site in which they select one or more tests and approve students to take those tests in the Student Testing Site.
Test Status Code Report
A report available in TIDE that displays all the non-participation codes for a test administration.
Test Ticket
A piece of paper that includes a student’s username for logging in to a test in TDS.
Test Timeout
When a student's test pauses automatically after a certain period of inactivity.
Test Window (TW)
The date range in which a particular test is available for administration to eligible students.
Text Drag and Drop
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging text elements into the blank spaces within a sentence or paragraph.
Text-to-Speech (TTS)
An embedded support available in the Student Testing Site that reads aloud text content within a test.
Tiger Max Embosser
Accessibility software used to emboss PRN test items in a Braille test.
Tutorial
A tool within the Student Testing Site that plays a video demonstrating how students interact with a particular item type.

U

Ubuntu
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Uncontracted Braille
A form of Braille that translates each individual print letter, number or punctuation mark into a braille sign.
User
An educator who is able to access and use a CAI system. Accounts for users can be created in TIDE.
User Role
In CAI systems, a role associated with a user's email address that determines which systems they may access and which permissions they have within that system.

V

Voice Pack (VP)
A software tool for emulating speech. Voice packs must be present in testing devices for any students who will use text-to-speech (TTS).

W

Word builder (WB)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing with an on-screen keyboard.
Writing Constructed Response (WCR)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing an answer in a text box.
Writing Extended Response (WER)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a long answer in a text box.
Writing Short Response (WSR)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a short answer in a text box.